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The New This is for people who want to lose weight in an easy and sustainable way, while still being able to eat well most of the time.
Following this approach can significantly reduce body fat while also providing additional health benefits. Based on one of the healthiest and most researched diets in the world, low in refined carbs and high in healthy fats, our Med-style approach can reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve gut health. FOOD The food we eat today, high in sugar and easily digestible carbohydrates, causes spikes in our blood sugar, which rapidly drop leaving us hungry only shortly after eating.
These carbs are not only going straight round our middles as fat, but is also putting us at risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity and a lifetime on medication. This is why the Fast recommends a lowish-carb, highish-fat, Mediterranean style of eating. This is not only packed with essential nutrients, but plenty of protein and fibre to keep you fuller for longer. The diet can have several benefits, including: Weight loss For the most part, people who follow the diet plan are looking to lose weight.
To lose weight, a person typically needs to eat fewer calories than they burn. Nutritionists call this a caloric deficit. When someone follows this correctly, the diet may be a simple, straightforward way to cut calories, which may help burn extra fat.
While there are not many studies on the diet specifically, initial studies on intermittent fasting seem promising. A review in the Annual Review of Nutrition noted that in animal studies, a similar intermittent fasting diet led to a reduction in fat tissue and the cells that store fat.
A review and meta-analysis compared intermittent fasting to simple calorie restriction diets. This research noted that intermittent fasting is as effective as calorie restriction when it comes to weight loss and improving metabolic health. Reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes Initial studies also suggest an intermittent calorie diet may also help reduce the risk of diabetes in some people. Research from suggests that both intermittent fasting diets and calorie restriction diets helped reduce fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance in adults who were overweight or obese.
The degree to which shifts in the microbiome can affect epigenetic changes in DNA, and vice versa, is currently not fully understood. Alterations in the microbiome have been shown in both mice and to a less extensive degree humans to affect Treg development [ — ], and reduction in Treg signal is associated with worse outcomes in infection control [ ], autoimmunity [ , ], allergic sensitization [ ], and has been, more controversially, associated with cancer risks [ — ].
Recent mouse work has also shown transplanting the gut flora from allergic mice to wild type mice can significantly alter oral allergic sensitization [ ], indicating direct effects of the gut flora on immune disease.
Therefore, dietary choices that alter gut microbiome likely alter systemic responses through changes in the number and function of regulatory T cells. Unraveling which specific bacterial strains are either the protectors or pathogens has not yet been elucidated in either mice or humans, however the field of microbiota research has many informative discoveries. The desire to foster a healthy microbiome is the driving force behind the therapeutic use of probiotics.
Supplementation with various Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Bifidobacterium species reduce the rate and severity of childhood atopic dermatitis when fed to pregnant women during the later weeks of gestation [ ].
Evidence outlining associations between natural shifts in the microbiome and impacts on human health is also plentiful. In general, increased numbers Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes is associated with an increased incidence of allergy, asthma, and obesity [ ].
As stated, processed sugars and saturated fats encourage dysbiosis [ 52 , 92 ] while complex carbohydrates encourage an anti-inflammatory microbiome and discourage growth of infections from Clostridium difficile[ 92 ]. Intake of omega-3 increases ratios of Blautia species and increases levels of both colonic and blood IL in mice, although a direct link between the two was not established [ ]. Reductions in Blautia were found in children with type-I diabetes [ ] and, among other changes, was associated with increased incidence of colorecal cancer in both humans [ ] and mice [ ].
However, high levels of Blautia were seen in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease [ ], possibly revealing differences between human and mouse biology or perhaps representing a natural attempt to restore homeostasis.
Meanwhile, Clostridium coccodies and C. As such, we cannot exclude any shift in the gut microflora as the etiology of immune alterations. However, any hope for long-term benefits from probiotics may be limited by the need for dietary modification.
Gordon and colleagues demonstrated that alterations in the mouse gut microbiome could prevent obesity, however these effects were dependent upon changing from a high-fat, low-fiber Western-style diet, to a healthier standard mouse diet [ ]. While these findings are limited to mice, they raise a concern that taking probiotics may not be of benefit if the patient fails to eat a healthy diet.
Additional, recent mouse studies [ ] investigating how consumption of red meat may accelerate cardiovascular disease and inflammation in humans [ , ] suggest an additional and potentially serious limitation on probiotic supplementation.
Dietary L-carnitine and choline, compounds abundant in red meat, are metabolized into trimethylamine-N-oxide TMAO by way of some normal gut commensals; in mice TMAO enhances atherosclerosis through disrupting cholesterol metabolism and foam-cell macrophage activity [ ].
This may suggests that researchers cannot assume the safety of probiotic supplementation since bacterial species providing benefit to healthy individuals eating a healthy diet may hold the potential to become pathogenic when exposed to an unhealthy diet; however, like all studies limited to mice, human correlation will be needed.
The benefits of dietary modification over supplementation is furthered by evidence showing that dietary supplementation does not increase longevity, indicating that probiotics and other commercial interventions such as tea or berry extracts are unlikely to counteract poor dietary habits [ ]. Much work remains before the understanding of the effects of dysbiosis in humans reaches that of mice, however while definitive statements may be lacking, the preponderance of current evidence strongly suggests that the gut microbiome is a major contributor to human health and disease.
Figure 2 Diagrammatic overview of the current mechanisms for macro-components of the modern diet altering susceptibility to infection, allergy, and autoimmunity. Solid black lines indicate direct human evidence for enhancement is present; solid red lines indicate direct human evidence of inhibition exists; grey lines indicate only in vitro or animal model evidence exist currently; dotted lines indicate significant disagreement within the scientific literature.
All clip art and images sourced from free-for-us online repositories. Immuno-nutrition in cancer Although dietary factors are thought to account for up to one-third of cancers in Western nations [ ], the complexity of immuno-nutrition is well highlighted in the research relating to cancer prevention.
A typical meal may have thousands to bioactive compounds [ ], distinguishing the effects of one from another is made all the more difficult by evidence that compounds may synergize or inhibit each other in respect to the development of neoplasms [ , ] as well as possible confounding by other environmental exposures such as smoking and infections H. In general, chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cancer [ ], whether this is due to direct cellular damage, the previously discussed resultant down regulation of immune responsiveness, or a combination is unknown.
There are associations between oral and esophageal cancers and high intake of alcohol, tobacco, and of scalding hot food or drinks [ ]. Colon cancer risk appears to be worsened by high intake of red meat, salt-preserved meat, and fat, although the data is not completely conclusive [ — ]. Excessive intake of alcohol is associated with cirrhosis-induced liver cancer and is a risk factor for breast cancer [ , ].
Evidence on dietary risk factors for pancreatic, lung, prostate, and kidney are more controversial, but have been exquisitely reviewed [ ].
Palmitic acid may potentiate iron-mediated toxicities and increase the rates of DNA mutations while inhibiting the normal apoptotic pathways [ — ]. Dietary intake of the saturated palmitic and steric fatty acids as well as the omega-9 oleic acid, may be independent risk factors for the development of colon cancer [ ].
Simple sugars were thought to heighten cancer risk through several well-reviewed in vitro mechanisms [ ], however more recent clinical analysis has not shown an increased risk of cancer attributable to sugar intake and suggests the original findings are more likely related to total caloric intake or glycemic load [ — ].
There is however, convincing evidence that obesity itself increases the risk of cancers of the breast, uterus, colon, esophagus, and kidney [ — ].