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Cambridge Core - Biotechnology - Basic Biotechnology - edited by Colin Ratledge. PDF; Export citation Chapter 1 - Public perception of biotechnology. Basic biotechnology book pdf. PDF with our Machine Scanner Software. You should also verify your primary and secondary update location via Preferences. Biotechnology can be broadly de- fined as “using living organisms or their products for commercial pur- poses.” As such, biotechnology has been practiced by.
This undesirable effect could occur if such an animal were to be infected with a virus sufficiently similar to the vector to package the vector into virions. For example, if a transgenic chicken were created using an avian retrovirus vector, then infection of the transgenic chicken with any related virus such viruses are quite commonly found in commercial poultry operations could lead to the production and release of a virus that could transmit the gene to other animals where its presence and expression might be highly undesirable, such as among wild bird populations.
Generation of a replicating virus could occur in the absence of exogenous infection, since many species contain endogenous retroviruses in their genomes that could serve as agents of this kind of mobilization. For example, in cats carrying murine leukemia virus-based vector constructs, the introduced genes could be mobilized to other cats or, at least theoretically, to their human hosts by the endogenous feline leukemia viruses found in most animals.
As discussed above, the use of vectors based on HIV has the potential to improve the efficiency of introduction of new genes into the germline of many animal species. Such germline vectors could, in principle, also be mobilized by HIV or a sufficiently close relative.
Viruses closely related to HIV are found only in African primates; however, viruses of the same genus Lentivirus are fairly common in cats feline immunodeficiency virus or FIV , cattle bovine immunodeficiency virus or BIV , and sheep visna-maedi virus or VMV; Rosenberg and Jolicouer, Despite the distant relationship, FIV has been shown to transfer HIV-based vector constructs from one cell to another, raising a serious concern that similar transfer of genes introduced by an HIV or any lentivirus vector could be mobilized among animals infected with these common viruses Berkowitz et al.
A related concern arises with the use of mariner and related transposons including sleeping beauty to introduce germline DNA. Related elements have been found in large numbers 14 thousand copies in the human genome Lander et al. These potentially could be mobilized by the constructs used to transfer mariner-like elements into the germline, and their insertion into genes could give rise to unexpected genetic damage. Horizontal gene transfer also might be mediated by ingestion of DNA Houck et al.
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Were this a requirement applied to transposable element vector systems for genetic engineering of animals, the hazards at issue could be minimized or eliminated, so long as active elements capable of mobilizing the introduced sequences were not already present in the host animal. Potential for Creation of New Pathogens In addition to their potential for mobilization by interaction with related viruses, transgene sequences also can contribute elements to infecting agents that might modify their ability to cause disease.
The donation of drug-resistance genes to bacteria as a consequence of their widespread presence in transgenic livestock is one theoretical example, although the resistance gene would have to be one not found in the environment for the risk of such an event to be significantly enhanced over the natural background.
Another example is the possible generation of new retroviruses following recombination between endogenous or exogenous viruses and ones used as vectors for transgenes. A recent natural example is the generation, through recombination between an infectious avian retrovirus and a distantly related endogenous element, of a highly virulent virus, called HPRS, or subgroup J avian leukemia virus ALV Payne et al. This virus apparently arose as the result of a single, very rare event, but subsequently has been spread worldwide and has become a source of considerable economic loss to poultry breeders Venugopal, The DNA genomes of somatic cell nuclei used for this procedure differ in two important ways from those of germline cells.
First, they have shortened telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, a consequence of multiple rounds of cell division in the absence of telomerase, the enzyme responsible for maintenance of telomere length.
Since loss of telomere length is the principal mechanism limiting the lifespan of cells in culture Urquidi et al. Second, the methylation state of the DNA of somatic cells is quite different from that of germline cells Rideout et al. Since methylation at CG sequences plays a major role in the overall regulation of gene expression, it might be expected that inappropriate methylation states might lead to gross developmental abnormalities in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Indeed, it is possible that the inability of the embryo to properly reprogram methylation and expression is a major cause of the developmental abnormalities often seen in the generation of NT-produced embryos Rideout et al.
However, the apparently rapid increase in success rate of this procedure with experience, combined with the fact that animals who survive to adulthood are apparently normal Betthauser et al. Furthermore, in a direct study Kang et al. Thus, although nuclear reprogramming is a significant practical issue in the efficient application of this technology, it does not appear to present as insurmountable a barrier as once thought.
Apparently the developmental process has a much more robust error-correction system than believed possible a few years ago. The committee carefully considered the possible concerns that might be raised by use of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology.
A few issues regarding animal welfare could be identified see Chapter 6 , including the possibility of inappropriate gene expression during development due to altered methylation patterns, or other developmental problems, such as oversized fetuses Young et al. However, the effects of cloning are more difficult to anticipate because competing processes are at issue.
On the one hand, cloning by its nature produces identical copies of a particular individual, reducing genetic Page 49 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"2. On the other hand, cloning makes it possible to save and utilize genetic variability that would not otherwise be available, for example, the genetic resources from a steer proven to be high performing. The tradeoff between the competing processes is hard to quantify in the absence of simulation modeling with validation from field observations.
Whatever the mechanism causing it, loss of genetic diversity could limit the potential for future genetic improvement of breeds by selective breeding or biotechnologic approaches.
Further, disease could spread through susceptible populations more rapidly than through more genetically diverse populations. PDF Latin: PDF Lost Names: PDF Louise Nevelson: PDF Medicare Matters: PDF Memory for Forgetfulness: PDF Nowherelands: PDF Nutrition: PDF Pathologies of Power: Meaning and Invention Read online - by Christiane L.
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